To address several limitations of current clinical neuroimaging, we have developed a novel TransFontanelle Multispectral Photoacoustic Imaging (TFMPI) method to study pathophysiology, and to improve the detection of brain hemorrhage, as well as measuring the brain tissue oxygenation. We have also developed a novel point-of-care 3D neonatal PhotoAcoustic Tomography (3D-nPAT) instrument to improve the detection and measurement of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonates without the need for sedation, radiation or radionuclides.